human being, humanity, human animal

The first step towards moral progress is to replace the word “human being” and “humanity” with “human animal”.


Cyberpunk in Second Life

Cyberpunk in Second Life

from a new friend's store:

“Neurolab Inc. - Machinima Second Life (2011-03) 1080p”

His home page is: neurolab-inc.com


HTML “html”, “head”, “body”, Tags Are Optional?

Perm url with updates: http://xahlee.org/js/ex/html_head_body_optional.html

HTML “html”, “head”, “body”, Tags Are Optional

The HTML's “html”, “head”, “body”, tags are all optional. This is a test page. View source.

However, the “DOCTYPE” and “title” are required.

Check validator.w3.org

However, it is not clear whether html5 requires them. See: http://dev.w3.org/html5/html-author/.

It says:

The html element is the root element of a document. Every document must begin with this element, and it must contain both the head and body elements.


In the HTML syntax only, both the start and end tags are optional, and so for convenience either may be omitted, unless you wish to specify attributes on this element, in which case, at least the start tag needs to be included.

It appears that the “html” tag is optional, but “head” and “body” are required.

Back to Xah's Web Dev Tutorial.

360 Panorama

Perm url with updates: http://xahlee.org/arts/panorama.html

360 Panorama

Xah Lee, 2011-03-29

Discovered a new, really great, panorama site.

The site got thousands of panoramas around the world. It uses Adobe Flash technology, and works really great. Best of all, you can embed them on your website.


Women with Nose Cut Off

Perm url with updates: http://xahlee.org/Periodic_dosage_dir/nose_cut_off.html

Women with Nose Cut Off

Xah Lee, 2010-02-01, 2011-03-28

Time Mag in its 2010-07-29 issue is running a cover with a lurid image of a woman with nose cut off.

The image comes with a big caption: “What Happens if We Leave Afghanistan”. The logic of the juxtaposed caption is clear: if US doesn't meddle with other's affairs, then the world would all cut off women's noses.

The mag tries to justify the image on cover, but i didn't see any justfication for the caption.

✻ ✻ ✻


“Behold, the peace of Islam - Nazia, a 17-year old girl from Afghanistan, who suffered a similar fate in 2007” Source atlasshrugs2000.typepad.com

What is Taliban?

After writing this blog, due to the lurid photos, i looked up on Taliban. Here's Wikipedia article: Taliban.

Taliban is a extremely fucked up religion based military sect. In a sense, it is similar to WASP and George W Bush of USA, Tibet under Dalai Lama, Scientology & Falun Gong.


HTML/XML Entities (Character/Unicode/Symbol) List

Perm url with updates: http://xahlee.org/comp/unicode_html_entities.html

HTML/XML Entities (Character/Unicode/Symbol) List

Xah Lee, 2011-03-27

This page is a complete list of HTML/XML entities.

(If you are not familiar with entities or unicode, see: Character Sets and Encoding in HTMLUNICODE Basics: What's Character Encoding, UTF-8, and All That?.)

Character entity references for markup-significant and internationalization characters

nbsp no-break space = non-breaking space, U+00A0
iexcl¡inverted exclamation mark, U+00A1
cent¢cent sign, U+00A2
pound£pound sign, U+00A3
curren¤currency sign, U+00A4
yen¥yen sign = yuan sign, U+00A5
brvbar¦broken bar = broken vertical bar, U+00A6
sect§section sign, U+00A7
uml¨diaeresis = spacing diaeresis, U+00A8
copy©copyright sign, U+00A9
ordfªfeminine ordinal indicator, U+00AA
laquo«left-pointing double angle quotation mark = left pointing guillemet, U+00AB
not¬not sign, U+00AC
shy­soft hyphen = discretionary hyphen, U+00AD
reg®registered sign = registered trade mark sign, U+00AE
macr¯macron = spacing macron = overline = APL overbar, U+00AF
deg°degree sign, U+00B0
plusmn±plus-minus sign = plus-or-minus sign, U+00B1
sup2²superscript two = superscript digit two = squared, U+00B2
sup3³superscript three = superscript digit three = cubed, U+00B3
acute´acute accent = spacing acute, U+00B4
microµmicro sign, U+00B5
parapilcrow sign = paragraph sign, U+00B6
middot·middle dot = Georgian comma = Greek middle dot, U+00B7
cedil¸cedilla = spacing cedilla, U+00B8
sup1¹superscript one = superscript digit one, U+00B9
ordmºmasculine ordinal indicator, U+00BA
raquo»right-pointing double angle quotation mark = right pointing guillemet, U+00BB
frac14¼vulgar fraction one quarter = fraction one quarter, U+00BC
frac12½vulgar fraction one half = fraction one half, U+00BD
frac34¾vulgar fraction three quarters = fraction three quarters, U+00BE
iquest¿inverted question mark = turned question mark, U+00BF
AgraveÀlatin capital letter A with grave = latin capital letter A grave, U+00C0
AacuteÁlatin capital letter A with acute, U+00C1
AcircÂlatin capital letter A with circumflex, U+00C2
AtildeÃlatin capital letter A with tilde, U+00C3
AumlÄlatin capital letter A with diaeresis, U+00C4
AringÅlatin capital letter A with ring above = latin capital letter A ring, U+00C5
AEligÆlatin capital letter AE = latin capital ligature AE, U+00C6
CcedilÇlatin capital letter C with cedilla, U+00C7
EgraveÈlatin capital letter E with grave, U+00C8
EacuteÉlatin capital letter E with acute, U+00C9
EcircÊlatin capital letter E with circumflex, U+00CA
EumlËlatin capital letter E with diaeresis, U+00CB
IgraveÌlatin capital letter I with grave, U+00CC
IacuteÍlatin capital letter I with acute, U+00CD
IcircÎlatin capital letter I with circumflex, U+00CE
IumlÏlatin capital letter I with diaeresis, U+00CF
ETHÐlatin capital letter ETH, U+00D0
NtildeÑlatin capital letter N with tilde, U+00D1
OgraveÒlatin capital letter O with grave, U+00D2
OacuteÓlatin capital letter O with acute, U+00D3
OcircÔlatin capital letter O with circumflex, U+00D4
OtildeÕlatin capital letter O with tilde, U+00D5
OumlÖlatin capital letter O with diaeresis, U+00D6
times×multiplication sign, U+00D7
OslashØlatin capital letter O with stroke = latin capital letter O slash, U+00D8
UgraveÙlatin capital letter U with grave, U+00D9
UacuteÚlatin capital letter U with acute, U+00DA
UcircÛlatin capital letter U with circumflex, U+00DB
UumlÜlatin capital letter U with diaeresis, U+00DC
YacuteÝlatin capital letter Y with acute, U+00DD
THORNÞlatin capital letter THORN, U+00DE
szligßlatin small letter sharp s = ess-zed, U+00DF
agraveàlatin small letter a with grave = latin small letter a grave, U+00E0
aacuteálatin small letter a with acute, U+00E1
acircâlatin small letter a with circumflex, U+00E2
atildeãlatin small letter a with tilde, U+00E3
aumlälatin small letter a with diaeresis, U+00E4
aringålatin small letter a with ring above = latin small letter a ring, U+00E5
aeligælatin small letter ae = latin small ligature ae, U+00E6
ccedilçlatin small letter c with cedilla, U+00E7
egraveèlatin small letter e with grave, U+00E8
eacuteélatin small letter e with acute, U+00E9
ecircêlatin small letter e with circumflex, U+00EA
eumlëlatin small letter e with diaeresis, U+00EB
igraveìlatin small letter i with grave, U+00EC
iacuteílatin small letter i with acute, U+00ED
icircîlatin small letter i with circumflex, U+00EE
iumlïlatin small letter i with diaeresis, U+00EF
ethðlatin small letter eth, U+00F0
ntildeñlatin small letter n with tilde, U+00F1
ograveòlatin small letter o with grave, U+00F2
oacuteólatin small letter o with acute, U+00F3
ocircôlatin small letter o with circumflex, U+00F4
otildeõlatin small letter o with tilde, U+00F5
oumlölatin small letter o with diaeresis, U+00F6
divide÷division sign, U+00F7
oslashølatin small letter o with stroke, = latin small letter o slash, U+00F8
ugraveùlatin small letter u with grave, U+00F9
uacuteúlatin small letter u with acute, U+00FA
ucircûlatin small letter u with circumflex, U+00FB
uumlülatin small letter u with diaeresis, U+00FC
yacuteýlatin small letter y with acute, U+00FD
thornþlatin small letter thorn, U+00FE
yumlÿlatin small letter y with diaeresis, U+00FF

Character entity references for symbols, mathematical symbols, and Greek letters

Latin Extended-B

fnofƒlatin small f with hook = function = florin, U+0192


AlphaΑgreek capital letter alpha, U+0391
BetaΒgreek capital letter beta, U+0392
GammaΓgreek capital letter gamma, U+0393
DeltaΔgreek capital letter delta, U+0394
EpsilonΕgreek capital letter epsilon, U+0395
ZetaΖgreek capital letter zeta, U+0396
EtaΗgreek capital letter eta, U+0397
ThetaΘgreek capital letter theta, U+0398
IotaΙgreek capital letter iota, U+0399
KappaΚgreek capital letter kappa, U+039A
LambdaΛgreek capital letter lambda, U+039B
MuΜgreek capital letter mu, U+039C
NuΝgreek capital letter nu, U+039D
XiΞgreek capital letter xi, U+039E
OmicronΟgreek capital letter omicron, U+039F
PiΠgreek capital letter pi, U+03A0
RhoΡgreek capital letter rho, U+03A1
SigmaΣgreek capital letter sigma, U+03A3
TauΤgreek capital letter tau, U+03A4
UpsilonΥgreek capital letter upsilon, U+03A5
PhiΦgreek capital letter phi, U+03A6
ChiΧgreek capital letter chi, U+03A7
PsiΨgreek capital letter psi, U+03A8
OmegaΩgreek capital letter omega, U+03A9
alphaαgreek small letter alpha, U+03B1
betaβgreek small letter beta, U+03B2
gammaγgreek small letter gamma, U+03B3
deltaδgreek small letter delta, U+03B4
epsilonεgreek small letter epsilon, U+03B5
zetaζgreek small letter zeta, U+03B6
etaηgreek small letter eta, U+03B7
thetaθgreek small letter theta, U+03B8
iotaιgreek small letter iota, U+03B9
kappaκgreek small letter kappa, U+03BA
lambdaλgreek small letter lambda, U+03BB
muμgreek small letter mu, U+03BC
nuνgreek small letter nu, U+03BD
xiξgreek small letter xi, U+03BE
omicronοgreek small letter omicron, U+03BF NEW
piπgreek small letter pi, U+03C0
rhoρgreek small letter rho, U+03C1
sigmafςgreek small letter final sigma, U+03C2
sigmaσgreek small letter sigma, U+03C3
tauτgreek small letter tau, U+03C4
upsilonυgreek small letter upsilon, U+03C5
phiφgreek small letter phi, U+03C6
chiχgreek small letter chi, U+03C7
psiψgreek small letter psi, U+03C8
omegaωgreek small letter omega, U+03C9
thetasymϑgreek small letter theta symbol, U+03D1 NEW
upsihϒgreek upsilon with hook symbol, U+03D2 NEW
pivϖgreek pi symbol, U+03D6

General Punctuation

bullbullet = black small circle, U+2022
helliphorizontal ellipsis = three dot leader, U+2026
primeprime = minutes = feet, U+2032
Primedouble prime = seconds = inches, U+2033
olineoverline = spacing overscore, U+203E NEW
fraslfraction slash, U+2044 NEW

Letterlike Symbols

weierpscript capital P = power set = Weierstrass p, U+2118
imageblackletter capital I = imaginary part, U+2111
realblackletter capital R = real part symbol, U+211C
tradetrade mark sign, U+2122
alefsymalef symbol = first transfinite cardinal, U+2135 NEW


larrleftwards arrow, U+2190
uarrupwards arrow, U+2191
rarrrightwards arrow, U+2192
darrdownwards arrow, U+2193
harrleft right arrow, U+2194
crarrdownwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return, U+21B5 NEW
lArrleftwards double arrow, U+21D0
uArrupwards double arrow, U+21D1
rArrrightwards double arrow, U+21D2
dArrdownwards double arrow, U+21D3
hArrleft right double arrow, U+21D4

Mathematical Operators

forallfor all, U+2200
partpartial differential, U+2202
existthere exists, U+2203
emptyempty set = null set = diameter, U+2205
nablanabla = backward difference, U+2207
isinelement of, U+2208
notinnot an element of, U+2209
nicontains as member, U+220B
prodn-ary product = product sign, U+220F
sumn-ary sumation, U+2211
minusminus sign, U+2212
lowastasterisk operator, U+2217
radicsquare root = radical sign, U+221A
propproportional to, U+221D
infininfinity, U+221E
angangle, U+2220
andlogical and = wedge, U+2227
orlogical or = vee, U+2228
capintersection = cap, U+2229
cupunion = cup, U+222A
intintegral, U+222B
there4therefore, U+2234
simtilde operator = varies with = similar to, U+223C
congapproximately equal to, U+2245
asympalmost equal to = asymptotic to, U+2248
nenot equal to, U+2260
equividentical to, U+2261
leless-than or equal to, U+2264
gegreater-than or equal to, U+2265
subsubset of, U+2282
supsuperset of, U+2283
nsubnot a subset of, U+2284
subesubset of or equal to, U+2286
supesuperset of or equal to, U+2287
opluscircled plus = direct sum, U+2295
otimescircled times = vector product, U+2297
perpup tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular, U+22A5
sdotdot operator, U+22C5

Miscellaneous Technical

lceilleft ceiling = apl upstile, U+2308
rceilright ceiling, U+2309
lfloorleft floor = apl downstile, U+230A
rfloorright floor, U+230B
langleft-pointing angle bracket = bra, U+2329
rangright-pointing angle bracket = ket, U+232A

Geometric Shapes

lozlozenge, U+25CA

Miscellaneous Symbols

spadesblack spade suit, U+2660
clubsblack club suit = shamrock, U+2663
heartsblack heart suit = valentine, U+2665
diamsblack diamond suit, U+2666

Character entity references for markup-significant and internationalization characters

C0 Controls and Basic Latin

quot"quotation mark = APL quote, U+0022
amp&ampersand, U+0026
lt<less-than sign, U+003C
gt>greater-than sign, U+003E

Latin Extended-A

OEligŒlatin capital ligature OE, U+0152
oeligœlatin small ligature oe, U+0153
ScaronŠlatin capital letter S with caron, U+0160
scaronšlatin small letter s with caron, U+0161
YumlŸlatin capital letter Y with diaeresis, U+0178

Spacing Modifier Letters

circˆmodifier letter circumflex accent, U+02C6
tilde˜small tilde, U+02DC

General Punctuation

enspen space, U+2002
emspem space, U+2003
thinspthin space, U+2009
zwnjzero width non-joiner, U+200C NEW RFC 2070
zwjzero width joiner, U+200D NEW RFC 2070
lrmleft-to-right mark, U+200E NEW RFC 2070
rlmright-to-left mark, U+200F NEW RFC 2070
ndashen dash, U+2013
mdashem dash, U+2014
lsquoleft single quotation mark, U+2018
rsquoright single quotation mark, U+2019
sbquosingle low-9 quotation mark, U+201A NEW
ldquoleft double quotation mark, U+201C
rdquoright double quotation mark, U+201D
bdquodouble low-9 quotation mark, U+201E NEW
daggerdagger, U+2020
Daggerdouble dagger, U+2021
permilper mille sign, U+2030
lsaquosingle left-pointing angle quotation mark, U+2039
rsaquosingle right-pointing angle quotation mark, U+203A
euroeuro sign, U+20AC NEW

Source: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/entities.html.